Posts Tagged ‘puberty’

TESTOSTERONE: Truths and Tall Tales—25 Questions Answered

October 17, 2015

Andrew Siegel MD   10/17/15

bodybuilding-311351_1280

(Thank you, Pixabay, for above image)

There has been an “epidemic” of a clincal syndrome based on low testosterone levels.  Is it real or is it a pharmaceutical company “figment” fueled by aggressive direct-to-consumer marketing for expensive and profitable easy-to-apply testosterone products?  Is testosterone replacement therapy the fast track to youth and alpha-male sexuality for the aging male, or is it harmful?  There is no subject rife with more confusion and misinformation than testosterone deficiency and its treatment. Hopefully, the following 25 questions and answers, culled from those commonly asked by my patients at office visits, will help enlighten and inform you and clarify misconceptions and falsehoods.

Abbreviations:

T: Testosterone (the key male sex hormone)        TD: Testosterone Deficiency

TRT: Testosterone Replacement Therapy       E: Estrogen (the key female sex hormone)

  1.  I don’t recall hearing much about testosterone years ago–Why has it suddenly become such a hot and trendy topic?

Big Pharma with their deep pockets and oversized advertising budgets started the “T” ball rolling. In 2008, AbbVie—manufacturer of Androgel—began an “Is it low T?” television campaign. Since that time, T has become a household word and T sales are up over 500% in a very competitive several billion-dollar market.

     2.  What exactly is T?

Testosterone is an “anabolic” hormone, a chemical messenger that promotes growth via protein synthesis, which drives the building of muscle and bone mass as well as strength; testosterone is equally an “androgenic” hormone, causing masculinization. T is made from cholesterol with most produced in the testes, with a small amount made in the adrenal glands (organs that sit above kidneys). Healthy men produce 6-8 mg testosterone daily, in a rhythmic pattern with a peak in the early morning and a lag in the later afternoon. If you find that you are most amorous in the early morning, now you have a good biochemical explanation.

   3.   When does T kick in and what does it do?

T surges around age 12-14 or so and drives puberty, causing the following: penis enlargement; development of an interest in sex; increased erections; pubic, underarm, facial, chest and leg hair; decrease in body fat and increase in muscle and bone mass, growth and strength; deepened voice and prominence of the Adam’s apple; sperm production; and bone and cartilage changes including growth of jaw, brow, chin, nose and ears and the transition from “cute” baby face to “angular” adult face.

   4.   Is T important after puberty?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Throughout adulthood, T helps maintain libido, masculinity, sexuality, and youthful vigor and vitality. Additionally, T contributes to mood, red blood cell count, energy, and general “mojo.”

   5.   What is TD and why does it occur?

TD is a clinical and biochemical syndrome characterized by relevant symptoms and signs in conjunction with a deficiency of T or T action. Symptomatic TD occurs in 2-6% of men.  There is approximately a 1% decline in T level each year after age 30. Most commonly it is an impaired testicular production of T. It can also happen because of a pituitary issue in which there is not enough production of luteinizing hormone (LH), the hormone that drives the testes to manufacture T.  Furthermore, it can happen under circumstances of normal T levels when there are elevated levels of the hormone that strongly binds T (SHBG), reducing the amounts of T available for action. It is important to distinguish TD on the basis of testes impairment vs. pituitary impairment, as the management is different.                                                                                                          

   6.   Is T going to help my erections, which are not quite what they used to be?  

Maybe.  Although T is important for sexual function and for maintaining the health and vitality of the penis, one does not need high or even normal levels of T to obtain an erection.  A good example is a pre-pubertal boy who gets erections all the time, but has no interest in sex.  The more compelling role of T is in driving libido.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           7.   T seems like such a vital hormone for men…is it for me?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ONLY under the circumstances of a testicular or pituitary problem causing the characteristic symptoms of TD coupled with a blood test that proves that low T levels is it worth pursuing a trial of TRT. It is only beneficial continuing the TRT if it is providing meaningful symptom improvement in the face of a normalized T level.

   8.   How does T get to the body tissues where it works?

Since T is a hormone–a chemical messenger that is made in one locale but works elsewhere–it needs to be transported to get to those cells where it acts.  T circulates in the blood stream–60% is inactive as it is tightly bound to SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin), 38% is weakly bound to albumin, and 2% is free. The albumin-bound and free T are the biologically “active” forms of T.

   9.   How does T work?

Much of T is converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a more potent form, which couples with a special receptor enabling it to move into the nucleus of cells and bind to DNA, where it provides the blueprint for protein synthesis. Some T does so without being converted to DHT and some T is converted to E, the main female hormone.

   10.   What about the female hormone estrogen…is it important for men?

Yes…More than 80% of E in males is derived from T. When levels of T are low, a decline in E levels will occur. E deficiency is important in terms of osteopenia (bone thinning) in men. As commonly happens with abdominal obesity, E levels become too high as abdominal fat is an active endocrine organ that converts T to E, causing low T, high E, breast development, the appearance of a smaller penis and general emasculation.

   11.   Why have T levels been dropping over the years?

Unhealthy lifestyle and the use of alcohol, steroids (for asthma, arthritis, connective tissue disorders and inflammatory bowel diseases) and opiate pain medications (methadone, tramadol, etc.) are risk factors. Obesity has played a huge (pardon the pun) role. Diabetes and metabolic syndrome have contributed to the low T epidemic as well. Physical and psychological stress affect pituitary hormone synthesis, which can give rise to low T levels. Sleep apnea can contribute to TD. Environmental factors such as phthalates, commonly used in plastic products, as well as many other environmental exposures, are associated with low T levels.

   12.   How important of a factor is obesity in causing TD?

Obesity is the single most common cause of TD in the developed world. More than half of men with TD are overweight or obese.  The good news is that it is potentially reversible with weight loss.

   13.  What is the issue with diagnosing low T based upon the established ADAM (androgen deficiency in the aging male) screening test?

The ADAM screening questions are very general and involve decreased libido, diminished erections, lack of energy, decrease in strength/endurance, loss of height, decreased joy, the presence of sadness or grumpiness, deterioration in sports performance, falling asleep after dinner and deterioration in work performance.  These symptoms have an enormous overlap with changes that accompany normal aging, insufficient or poor quality sleep, overworking and/or an unhealthy lifestyle.

Take, for example, a professional athlete of your choice who is at peak performance in his early 20’s. Fast-forward 30 years…how many of the aforementioned questions do you think will be answered positively?… Is it low T?…Possibly, but certainly not probably.

   14.   What are the symptoms that indicate the possibility of TD?

5 domains may be affected by TD: physical, sexual, cognitive, affect and sleep. Physical changes are reduced muscle mass and strength, increased body fat and abnormal lipid profiles, frailty, breast development, loss of body hair and central obesity. Sexual changes include decreased desire, diminished erection quality and weakened ejaculation and orgasm. Cognitive changes that may occur are impaired concentration, diminished verbal memory and altered visual-spatial awareness. Changes in affect can be a reduced sense of general wellbeing, decreased energy and motivation, anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep issues include fatigue, tendency to sleep during the day and difficulties falling and staying asleep.

   15.   How does one diagnose TD with lab testing?

The diagnosis of TD is made via a blood test for total T and free T as well as for the pituitary hormones, LH and prolactin. In cases of obese or elderly men, SHBG can be useful. It is important to know that T levels can vary depending on the particular lab and can fluctuate on a day-to-day basis as well as depending on what time of day it is drawn, as T has circadian biorhythms.  T can be temporarily suppressed by illness, nutritional deficiency and certain medications. Fasting T levels are generally higher than T levels after a meal. The bottom line is that T should be checked on at least two occasions.

   16.   What is the first-line approach to treating TD?

Lifestyle improvement measures including weight reduction, exercising regularly, management of sleep apnea and stopping the use of opioids.

   17.   When should TRT be used?

When TD fails to respond to first-line approaches in a man with characteristic symptoms and laboratory documentation of TD.

   18.   What is the goal of TRT?

To restore T levels to the mid-normal range of levels observed for healthy men and alleviate the signs and symptoms of TD without causing significant side effects or safety issues.

   19.   What are some of the testicular side effects of TRT?

Because TRT is an external source of T, it suppresses testes function, resulting in diminished sperm count, decreased fertility and the possibility of testes atrophy (shrinkage) with long-term use. Men who wish to retain fertility should not be put on TRT, but should consider the use of an oral medication that stimulates the testes to produce natural testosterone without suppressing sperm count.

   20.    What are some of the other side effects of TRT?

Acne, oily skin, breast development, worsening of sleep apnea, hair loss, fluid retention, elevated blood count and aggression.

   21.   How is TRT administered?

There are many different preparations: buccal (applied to the gums); transdermal (patches and gels); nasal gel; injections; and pellet implants. Each has advantages and disadvantages.

   22.   What about treating TD without TRT?

Since TRT impairs sperm development and fertility and may result in testes atrophy, an alternative to TRT–clomiphene citrate–works by stimulating the testes to produce natural T. It is approved by the FDA for both male and female fertility, but not for TD, so must be prescribed “off-label” for TD.

    23.   Do men with TD on TRT need follow up?

Yes, regular follow up is imperative to ensure that the TRT is effective, adverse effects are minimal, and T blood levels are in-range. Periodic digital rectal exams are important to check the prostate for enlargement and irregularities, and, in addition to T levels, other blood tests are important including a blood count to check for increased hematocrit (thicker, richer blood) and PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen).  With the commonly used gel products, absorption rates vary considerably from person to person depending on skin thickness, body hair, preparation, application site, degree of sweating, etc., so dose adjustments need to be made depending on T levels that are periodically checked.

   24.   What about TRT in men with cardiac disease or prostate cancer?

To quote a review article from the Journal of Sexual Medicine (Dean et al: The ISSM’s Process of Care for the Assessment an Management of TD in Adult Men, 2015;12:1660-1686) “TRT use has been complicated by controversies regarding prostate cancer and cardiovascular risks. Although the absence of large-scale, long-term controlled studies with TRT limits the ability to make definitive conclusions regarding these risks, the weight of evidence fails to support either concern.”

    25.   How about T supplements or boosters that can be bought online?

A. The Internet is overrun with male “sexual enhancement” products. They capitalize on male insecurity, which has created a huge market, with hordes of men willing to pay top dollar for products that have misleading claims and are often mislabeled, contaminated and falsely advertised. Unfortunately, such supplements are exempt from the stringent regulatory oversight applied to prescription drugs, which requires reviews of a product’s safety and effectiveness before it goes to market. Do not waste your money!

Bottom Line: TD is very real entity, but not as common as Big Pharma makes it out to be. The symptoms can be devastating and when accompanied by lab testing confirming the suspected clinical diagnosis, TRT can be magical.  I had one patient who eloquently described his “world of black and white turning into a world of color” after his T level was normalized. For many others with the syndrome, the beneficial effects of TRT are far more subtle.  If your T level is normal, it is highly unlikely that your symptoms are on the basis of low T and TRT should not be a consideration.  

Wishing you the best of health,

2014-04-23 20:16:29

http://www.AndrewSiegelMD.com

A new blog is posted every week. To receive the blogs in the in box of your email go to the following link and click on “email subscription”: www.HealthDoc13.WordPress.com

Author of Male Pelvic Fitness: Optimizing Sexual and Urinary Health: available in e-book (Amazon Kindle, Apple iBooks, Barnes & Noble Nook, Kobo) and paperback: www.MalePelvicFitness.com. In the works is The Kegel Fix: Recharging Female Pelvic, Sexual and Urinary Health.

Co-creator of Private Gym, a comprehensive, interactive, FDA-registered follow-along male pelvic floor muscle training program. Built upon the foundational work of Dr. Arnold Kegel, Private Gym empowers men to increase pelvic floor muscle strength, tone, power, and endurance: www.PrivateGym.com or Amazon.

Advertisements

Tainted By Testosterone: The Ultimate Double-Edged Sword

August 10, 2013

Andrew Siegel, MD  Blog #115

Many brilliant men have experienced their demise and downfall that can be explained in part— perhaps a large part—by a potent hormone known as testosterone, or more commonly as “T.” Bill Clinton, Elliott Spitzer, Anthony Weiner, John Edwards, Mark Sanford, Arnold Schwarzenegger and San Diego Mayor Bob Filner are all members of the “tainted by testosterone (TBT) club,” who have sustained career derailments partially attributed to the powerful effects of this chemical produced by the testicles and adrenal glands.  Aside from these well-known political celebrities, many a lesser-known man—just your average Joe—has similarly succumbed to the influence of T and joined the TBT club.

The nickname “T” has become very much in vogue these days. Many of my patients come into the office specifically asking for me to check their T levels—thank you, America Pharma.  The pharmaceutical industry is largely responsible for increasing grass-roots awareness of testosterone issues via direct-to-consumer advertising and promotion of testosterone replacement products. Once a subject that was primarily the domain of urologists and endocrinologists, T has gone mainstream.

What exactly is this powerful chemical that can have such a profound influence on a man’s behavior?  Many of us who enjoy the company of canine friends can attest to the dramatic change in behavior of our male pets after they are “fixed” by surgical castration. Man’s best friends become less aggressive, more docile, less alpha male, and less likely to hump your guest’s leg.  The term “fix” seem to imply that something was broken.  Extrapolate to human beings and one can understand how, when our brains are bathed in T, our thoughts, behaviors, and actions are influenced and modulated.

T—manufactured primarily in the testicles although a small percentage is made by the adrenal glands—is an all-important male sex hormone that goes way beyond male sexuality.  T is regarded as a key element in driving and maintaining men’s health. Current evidence suggests that a man’s testosterone level might serve as a very good indicator and marker of general health.  Aside from contributing to libido, masculinity and sexual function, T is responsible for all of the physical changes that occur at the time of puberty, including pubic, axillary and facial hair, deepening voice, prominent Adam’s apple and increased bone and muscle mass.  Additionally, T contributes to mood, bone and muscle strength, red blood cell count, energy, and general mojo.

T is nothing short of being a drug with profound psychopharmacological effects. One can appreciate the potency of this powerful chemical simply by observing the physical, emotional, and libidinal changes that result in the transition from “little boy” pre-pubertal status to “big man” post-pubertal status. Not in any way to diminish the role of environmental factors that most certainly play a role, T is the difference between the little boy in the backyard playing with the toy soldier and a water pistol and the little girl on the porch playing with her dolls and jacks.  T is rocket fuel that can make a man all “piss and vinegar.”

T is most certainly a double-edged sword—on the one hand, it is essential for male health and masculinity, but at the same time it can drive our libido to the danger zone in which temptation and opportunity conspire, with potentially perilous results in terms of relationships, careers, lives, etc.  By no means am I implying that this hormone is solely responsible for man’s impulsiveness, improprieties and indiscretions, but it unquestionably plays a significant role.  Assuredly, “It wasn’t me, it was my T” would be an unsatisfactory justification of the behaviors of Clinton, Spitzer, Weiner, Edwards, Sanford, Schwarzenegger and Filner.  However, the role of T cannot be discounted and helps explain the biochemical basis of male behaviors.  If we treated the men of our species similarly to the way in which we treated our male canine pets by “fixing” them (I am not in any way suggesting this), then we most probably would not bear witness to the kind of career-slamming, self-destructive and life-disruptive indiscretions that have been such common occurrences.

Having a low T is clearly not a good thing.  We know this from observing two populations of men—those who have suffered the consequences of low T that has developed coincident with the aging process and those who are put on medications that purposefully lower T, usually for the management of prostate cancer. Most men will have an approximately 1% decline of T each year after age 30; however, this will not always be symptomatic.  40% of American men aged 45 or older have low or low range T.  Low T is associated with metabolic syndrome and diabetes, bone mineral loss, and altered sexual function.  Specifically, symptoms of low T may include one or more of the following:  fatigue; irritability; depression; decreased libido; erectile dysfunction; impaired orgasmic function; decreased energy and sense of well-being; loss of muscle and bone mass; increased body fat; abnormal lipid profiles; and more. Essentially, low T accelerates the aging process.

So, low T is bad and normal T can influence men to behave badly. Is it possible to find a balance between healthy masculinity and unhealthy philandering and other inappropriate male sexual behaviors?  I sure hope so.  For the record, I don’t really care what politicians do in their free time as long as they do their jobs well. Clearly, they face tremendous stresses and pressures and need outlets for release.  However, it certainly would be nice if they didn’t make such a public spectacle and so embarrass themselves and their families. One has to consider that the very potent chemical T plays a vital role in determining the powerful alpha-male personality that is so fundamental to political ambition and ascent. Unfortunately, it is the very same T that contributes to influencing men to behave badly and stupidly, ending up in sabotaging political intentions and, more importantly, causing their lives to spiral down into a freefall. As borne out by the activities and affairs of many politicians in power, T can be thought of as “fertilizer” for the penis and the very brain that governs and guides that penis.

For some men, T engenders a situation akin to walking around with a loaded shotgun that begs to be unloaded, and the longer it’s been since the weapon has been fired, the greater the need to unload.  T has undoubtedly played a major role and influence in terms of male aggressiveness, violence, homicides, destruction, power struggles, wars, and death that run rampant in our civilization.  Our male gender has been both blessed and cursed by this powerful chemical that is one of the drugs within our internal pharmacy.  The challenge is to use this drug responsibly.

Who Knew?  Many women claim that men think with their “little brains.” All joking aside, there is genuine scientific merit for this insofar as testosterone is a hormone that has many biochemical functions and effects.  Men’s brains are literally bathed in this hormone that can profoundly influence emotions, behavior and thoughts. As a Yiddish proverb from Phillip Roth’s ‘Portnoy’s Complaint’ stated: “Ven der putz shteht, ligt der sechel in drerd,” translated as “when the prick stands up, the brains get buried in the ground.”

Who Knew? The comedian Robin Williams famously said: “God gave every man a brain and a penis, but only enough blood to make one work at a time.”

Who Knew? Too many of us use our penises as our compasses, navigational instruments that give us “direction.”

Who Knew? The athletic “cup” is the device that provides protection to the male genitals for those participating in sports like baseball, hockey, soccer and boxing. The cup was devised years before the first protective helmet for one’s head was used.  This tells you where men’s priorities lie—big head/little head!

 

Andrew Siegel, M.D.

Author of Promiscuous Eating: Understanding and Ending Our Self-Destructive Relationship with Food: www.promiscuouseating.com

Available on Amazon in paperback or Kindle edition

The Who Knew?  quips are from my forthcoming book, Male Pelvic Fitness: Optimizing Sexual and Urinary Health (in press).

Blog subscription: A new blog is posted every week.   On the lower right margin you can enter your email address to subscribe to the blog and receive notifications of new posts in your inbox.  Please avail yourself of these educational materials and share them with your friends and family.