Posts Tagged ‘lifestyle improvement’

TESTOSTERONE: Truths and Tall Tales—25 Questions Answered

October 17, 2015

Andrew Siegel MD   10/17/15

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(Thank you, Pixabay, for above image)

There has been an “epidemic” of a clincal syndrome based on low testosterone levels.  Is it real or is it a pharmaceutical company “figment” fueled by aggressive direct-to-consumer marketing for expensive and profitable easy-to-apply testosterone products?  Is testosterone replacement therapy the fast track to youth and alpha-male sexuality for the aging male, or is it harmful?  There is no subject rife with more confusion and misinformation than testosterone deficiency and its treatment. Hopefully, the following 25 questions and answers, culled from those commonly asked by my patients at office visits, will help enlighten and inform you and clarify misconceptions and falsehoods.

Abbreviations:

T: Testosterone (the key male sex hormone)        TD: Testosterone Deficiency

TRT: Testosterone Replacement Therapy       E: Estrogen (the key female sex hormone)

  1.  I don’t recall hearing much about testosterone years ago–Why has it suddenly become such a hot and trendy topic?

Big Pharma with their deep pockets and oversized advertising budgets started the “T” ball rolling. In 2008, AbbVie—manufacturer of Androgel—began an “Is it low T?” television campaign. Since that time, T has become a household word and T sales are up over 500% in a very competitive several billion-dollar market.

     2.  What exactly is T?

Testosterone is an “anabolic” hormone, a chemical messenger that promotes growth via protein synthesis, which drives the building of muscle and bone mass as well as strength; testosterone is equally an “androgenic” hormone, causing masculinization. T is made from cholesterol with most produced in the testes, with a small amount made in the adrenal glands (organs that sit above kidneys). Healthy men produce 6-8 mg testosterone daily, in a rhythmic pattern with a peak in the early morning and a lag in the later afternoon. If you find that you are most amorous in the early morning, now you have a good biochemical explanation.

   3.   When does T kick in and what does it do?

T surges around age 12-14 or so and drives puberty, causing the following: penis enlargement; development of an interest in sex; increased erections; pubic, underarm, facial, chest and leg hair; decrease in body fat and increase in muscle and bone mass, growth and strength; deepened voice and prominence of the Adam’s apple; sperm production; and bone and cartilage changes including growth of jaw, brow, chin, nose and ears and the transition from “cute” baby face to “angular” adult face.

   4.   Is T important after puberty?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Throughout adulthood, T helps maintain libido, masculinity, sexuality, and youthful vigor and vitality. Additionally, T contributes to mood, red blood cell count, energy, and general “mojo.”

   5.   What is TD and why does it occur?

TD is a clinical and biochemical syndrome characterized by relevant symptoms and signs in conjunction with a deficiency of T or T action. Symptomatic TD occurs in 2-6% of men.  There is approximately a 1% decline in T level each year after age 30. Most commonly it is an impaired testicular production of T. It can also happen because of a pituitary issue in which there is not enough production of luteinizing hormone (LH), the hormone that drives the testes to manufacture T.  Furthermore, it can happen under circumstances of normal T levels when there are elevated levels of the hormone that strongly binds T (SHBG), reducing the amounts of T available for action. It is important to distinguish TD on the basis of testes impairment vs. pituitary impairment, as the management is different.                                                                                                          

   6.   Is T going to help my erections, which are not quite what they used to be?  

Maybe.  Although T is important for sexual function and for maintaining the health and vitality of the penis, one does not need high or even normal levels of T to obtain an erection.  A good example is a pre-pubertal boy who gets erections all the time, but has no interest in sex.  The more compelling role of T is in driving libido.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           7.   T seems like such a vital hormone for men…is it for me?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ONLY under the circumstances of a testicular or pituitary problem causing the characteristic symptoms of TD coupled with a blood test that proves that low T levels is it worth pursuing a trial of TRT. It is only beneficial continuing the TRT if it is providing meaningful symptom improvement in the face of a normalized T level.

   8.   How does T get to the body tissues where it works?

Since T is a hormone–a chemical messenger that is made in one locale but works elsewhere–it needs to be transported to get to those cells where it acts.  T circulates in the blood stream–60% is inactive as it is tightly bound to SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin), 38% is weakly bound to albumin, and 2% is free. The albumin-bound and free T are the biologically “active” forms of T.

   9.   How does T work?

Much of T is converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a more potent form, which couples with a special receptor enabling it to move into the nucleus of cells and bind to DNA, where it provides the blueprint for protein synthesis. Some T does so without being converted to DHT and some T is converted to E, the main female hormone.

   10.   What about the female hormone estrogen…is it important for men?

Yes…More than 80% of E in males is derived from T. When levels of T are low, a decline in E levels will occur. E deficiency is important in terms of osteopenia (bone thinning) in men. As commonly happens with abdominal obesity, E levels become too high as abdominal fat is an active endocrine organ that converts T to E, causing low T, high E, breast development, the appearance of a smaller penis and general emasculation.

   11.   Why have T levels been dropping over the years?

Unhealthy lifestyle and the use of alcohol, steroids (for asthma, arthritis, connective tissue disorders and inflammatory bowel diseases) and opiate pain medications (methadone, tramadol, etc.) are risk factors. Obesity has played a huge (pardon the pun) role. Diabetes and metabolic syndrome have contributed to the low T epidemic as well. Physical and psychological stress affect pituitary hormone synthesis, which can give rise to low T levels. Sleep apnea can contribute to TD. Environmental factors such as phthalates, commonly used in plastic products, as well as many other environmental exposures, are associated with low T levels.

   12.   How important of a factor is obesity in causing TD?

Obesity is the single most common cause of TD in the developed world. More than half of men with TD are overweight or obese.  The good news is that it is potentially reversible with weight loss.

   13.  What is the issue with diagnosing low T based upon the established ADAM (androgen deficiency in the aging male) screening test?

The ADAM screening questions are very general and involve decreased libido, diminished erections, lack of energy, decrease in strength/endurance, loss of height, decreased joy, the presence of sadness or grumpiness, deterioration in sports performance, falling asleep after dinner and deterioration in work performance.  These symptoms have an enormous overlap with changes that accompany normal aging, insufficient or poor quality sleep, overworking and/or an unhealthy lifestyle.

Take, for example, a professional athlete of your choice who is at peak performance in his early 20’s. Fast-forward 30 years…how many of the aforementioned questions do you think will be answered positively?… Is it low T?…Possibly, but certainly not probably.

   14.   What are the symptoms that indicate the possibility of TD?

5 domains may be affected by TD: physical, sexual, cognitive, affect and sleep. Physical changes are reduced muscle mass and strength, increased body fat and abnormal lipid profiles, frailty, breast development, loss of body hair and central obesity. Sexual changes include decreased desire, diminished erection quality and weakened ejaculation and orgasm. Cognitive changes that may occur are impaired concentration, diminished verbal memory and altered visual-spatial awareness. Changes in affect can be a reduced sense of general wellbeing, decreased energy and motivation, anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep issues include fatigue, tendency to sleep during the day and difficulties falling and staying asleep.

   15.   How does one diagnose TD with lab testing?

The diagnosis of TD is made via a blood test for total T and free T as well as for the pituitary hormones, LH and prolactin. In cases of obese or elderly men, SHBG can be useful. It is important to know that T levels can vary depending on the particular lab and can fluctuate on a day-to-day basis as well as depending on what time of day it is drawn, as T has circadian biorhythms.  T can be temporarily suppressed by illness, nutritional deficiency and certain medications. Fasting T levels are generally higher than T levels after a meal. The bottom line is that T should be checked on at least two occasions.

   16.   What is the first-line approach to treating TD?

Lifestyle improvement measures including weight reduction, exercising regularly, management of sleep apnea and stopping the use of opioids.

   17.   When should TRT be used?

When TD fails to respond to first-line approaches in a man with characteristic symptoms and laboratory documentation of TD.

   18.   What is the goal of TRT?

To restore T levels to the mid-normal range of levels observed for healthy men and alleviate the signs and symptoms of TD without causing significant side effects or safety issues.

   19.   What are some of the testicular side effects of TRT?

Because TRT is an external source of T, it suppresses testes function, resulting in diminished sperm count, decreased fertility and the possibility of testes atrophy (shrinkage) with long-term use. Men who wish to retain fertility should not be put on TRT, but should consider the use of an oral medication that stimulates the testes to produce natural testosterone without suppressing sperm count.

   20.    What are some of the other side effects of TRT?

Acne, oily skin, breast development, worsening of sleep apnea, hair loss, fluid retention, elevated blood count and aggression.

   21.   How is TRT administered?

There are many different preparations: buccal (applied to the gums); transdermal (patches and gels); nasal gel; injections; and pellet implants. Each has advantages and disadvantages.

   22.   What about treating TD without TRT?

Since TRT impairs sperm development and fertility and may result in testes atrophy, an alternative to TRT–clomiphene citrate–works by stimulating the testes to produce natural T. It is approved by the FDA for both male and female fertility, but not for TD, so must be prescribed “off-label” for TD.

    23.   Do men with TD on TRT need follow up?

Yes, regular follow up is imperative to ensure that the TRT is effective, adverse effects are minimal, and T blood levels are in-range. Periodic digital rectal exams are important to check the prostate for enlargement and irregularities, and, in addition to T levels, other blood tests are important including a blood count to check for increased hematocrit (thicker, richer blood) and PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen).  With the commonly used gel products, absorption rates vary considerably from person to person depending on skin thickness, body hair, preparation, application site, degree of sweating, etc., so dose adjustments need to be made depending on T levels that are periodically checked.

   24.   What about TRT in men with cardiac disease or prostate cancer?

To quote a review article from the Journal of Sexual Medicine (Dean et al: The ISSM’s Process of Care for the Assessment an Management of TD in Adult Men, 2015;12:1660-1686) “TRT use has been complicated by controversies regarding prostate cancer and cardiovascular risks. Although the absence of large-scale, long-term controlled studies with TRT limits the ability to make definitive conclusions regarding these risks, the weight of evidence fails to support either concern.”

    25.   How about T supplements or boosters that can be bought online?

A. The Internet is overrun with male “sexual enhancement” products. They capitalize on male insecurity, which has created a huge market, with hordes of men willing to pay top dollar for products that have misleading claims and are often mislabeled, contaminated and falsely advertised. Unfortunately, such supplements are exempt from the stringent regulatory oversight applied to prescription drugs, which requires reviews of a product’s safety and effectiveness before it goes to market. Do not waste your money!

Bottom Line: TD is very real entity, but not as common as Big Pharma makes it out to be. The symptoms can be devastating and when accompanied by lab testing confirming the suspected clinical diagnosis, TRT can be magical.  I had one patient who eloquently described his “world of black and white turning into a world of color” after his T level was normalized. For many others with the syndrome, the beneficial effects of TRT are far more subtle.  If your T level is normal, it is highly unlikely that your symptoms are on the basis of low T and TRT should not be a consideration.  

Wishing you the best of health,

2014-04-23 20:16:29

http://www.AndrewSiegelMD.com

A new blog is posted every week. To receive the blogs in the in box of your email go to the following link and click on “email subscription”: www.HealthDoc13.WordPress.com

Author of Male Pelvic Fitness: Optimizing Sexual and Urinary Health: available in e-book (Amazon Kindle, Apple iBooks, Barnes & Noble Nook, Kobo) and paperback: www.MalePelvicFitness.com. In the works is The Kegel Fix: Recharging Female Pelvic, Sexual and Urinary Health.

Co-creator of Private Gym, a comprehensive, interactive, FDA-registered follow-along male pelvic floor muscle training program. Built upon the foundational work of Dr. Arnold Kegel, Private Gym empowers men to increase pelvic floor muscle strength, tone, power, and endurance: www.PrivateGym.com or Amazon.

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Man Kegels (Pelvic Floor Muscle Exercises for Men)-Part 2

March 15, 2014

Andrew Siegel MD, Blog# 145

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The photo above was taken by a pharmaceutical rep friend who discovered this phallic carving among the Roman ruins in Fez, Morocco.

The following is largely excerpted from my forthcoming book, Male Pelvic Fitness: Optimizing Sexual and Urinary Health, available in April 2014:

With respect to sexuality, medical publications—and more specifically the urological literature—rarely, if ever make mention of targeted exercise as a means of optimizing function or helping to treat a dysfunction. The preeminent urology textbook, Campbell’s Urology, a 4000 page, 4-volume tome, devotes precisely one paragraph to the use of pelvic floor muscle exercises in the management of male sexual dysfunction and makes no mention of its use in maximizing sexual function.

Despite numerous studies and research demonstrating the effectiveness of targeted pelvic exercises, they have been given short shrift. Part of the reason for this is simply that there has never been an easy-to-follow exercise program or well-designed means of facilitating pelvic floor muscle training in men. Instead, there is an emphasis on oral medications, urethral suppositories, penile injections, vacuum devices and penile implants. In the United States we have a pharmacology-centric medical culture—“a pill for every ill”—with aggressive prescription writing by physicians and a patient population that expects a quick fix.

It is shameful that traditionally there has been such little emphasis on lifestyle improvement—healthy diet, weight management, exercising, and avoidance of tobacco, excessive alcohol and stress—as a means of preventing and improving sexual dysfunction.

In addition to general lifestyle measures, specific exercises targeted at the pelvic floor can confer great benefits to pelvic health and fitness, an important element of overall health and fitness. The pelvic floor muscles (PFM) are critical to healthy  sexual function and achieving fitness in this domain is advantageous on many levels: to enhance sexual health; to maintain sexual health; to help prevent the occurrence of sexual dysfunction in the future; and to aid in the management of sexual dysfunction. PFM exercises should be considered first-line treatment of sexual dysfunction and a safe and natural self-improvement approach ideally suited to the male population, including the baby boomers, generation X, and generation Y.  PFM fitness can serve as an effective means to help keep the boomers “booming.”

I do not mean to downplay and disparage the role of medications and other options in managing sexual dysfunction. The availability of that magic blue pill in April 1998—Viagra—was a seminal moment in the world of male sexual dysfunction that enabled for the first time a simple and effective means of treating erectile dysfunction (ED).  On the polar opposite end of the treatment spectrum—but of no less importance—was the development and refinement of the penile implant, used in severe cases of ED unresponsive to less invasive options.

But why should we not initially try to capitalize on simpler, safer, and more natural solutions and consider, for example, using a targeted exercise program or medications in conjunction with a targeted exercise program?  Sexual function is all about blood flow to the penis and pelvis.  And what better way to enhance blood flow than to exercise?  We engage in exercise programs for virtually every other muscle group in the body.  Working out our PFM can result in a strong, robust and toned pelvic floor, capable of supporting and sustaining sexual function to the maximum.

Physical therapy is a well-accepted discipline that is commonly used for disabilities and rehabilitation after injury or surgery.  The goal of a physical therapy regimen is to promote mobility, functional restoration and quality of life. A targeted PFM exercise regimen can be considered the equivalent of genital and pelvic physical therapy with the goal of increasing the bulk, strength, power and function of the PFM.

The PFM can be thought of as a vital partner to our sexual organs, whose collaboration is an absolute necessity for optimal sexual functioning, little different than the relationship between the diaphragm muscle and the lungs. The role of the PFM in sexual function has been vastly undervalued and understated. The hard truth is that a well-conditioned pelvic floor that can be vigorously contracted and relaxed at will is often capable of improving sexual prowess and functioning as much as fitness training can enhance athletic performance and endurance.

Such targeted exercises confer advantages that go way beyond the sexual domain. These often-neglected muscles are vital to our genital-urinary health and wellness and serve an essential role in urinary function, bowel function and prostate health.  Additionally, they are important contributors to lumbar stability, spinal alignment and the prevention of back pain. Specifically, PFM exercises can be beneficial with respect to the following spectrum of issues: erectile dysfunction; orgasmic dysfunction; premature ejaculation; urinary incontinence; overactive bladder; post-void dribbling; pelvic pain due to levator muscle spasm; bowel urgency and incontinence; and in mitigating damage incurred from saddle sports including cycling, motorcycling and horseback riding.

The PFM, comprised of muscles that form a muscular shelf that spans the gap between our pelvic bones, form the base of our “core” muscles.  Our core muscles are the “barrel” of muscles in our midsection.  The top of our core is our diaphragm, the sides are our abdominal, flank, and back muscles, and the bottom of the barrel are our PFM.

The core muscles, including the PFM, are not the glitzy muscles of the body—not those muscles that are for show. Our core muscles are often ignored and do not get much respect, as opposed to the external glamour muscles of our body, including the pectorals, biceps, triceps, quadriceps, latissimus, etc.  In general, muscles that have such “mirror appeal” are not those that will help in terms of sexual and urinary function. Our core muscles are the hidden gems that work diligently behind the scenes—the muscles of major function and not so much form—muscles that have a role that goes way beyond movement, which is the cardinal task of a skeletal muscle.  On a functional basis, we would be much better off having a “chiseled” core as opposed to having “ripped” external muscles, as there is no benefit to having all “show” and no “go.”

The pelvic floor seems to be the lowest caste of the core muscles—the musculus non grata, if you will kindly accept my term. The PFM, however, do deserve serious respect because, although concealed from view, they are responsible for some very powerful and beneficial functions, particularly so when intensified by training.  Although the PFM are not muscles of glamour, they are our muscles of “amour.”

Who Knew? Having “ripped” external glamour muscles might help get your romance going, but having a chiseled core and conditioned PFM will help keep it going…and going…and going!

The female pelvic floor muscles, exercises for which were popularized by gynecologist Dr. Arnold Kegel, have long been recognized as an important structural and functional component of the female pelvis. But who has ever heard of the male pelvic floor?  The male pelvic floor has been largely unrecognized and relegated as having far less significance than the female pelvic floor.  Yet from a functional standpoint, these muscles are of vital importance, certainly as critical to male genital-urinary health as they are to female genital-urinary health.

The PFM, as with other muscles in the body, are subject to the forces of adaptation.  Unused as they are intended, they can suffer from “disuse atrophy.” Used appropriately as designed by nature, they can remain in a healthy structural and functional state. When targeted exercise is applied to them, particularly against the forces of resistance, their structure and function, as that of any other skeletal muscle, can be enhanced.

The key responsibility of most of our skeletal muscles is for joint movement and locomotion. The core muscles in general, and the PFM in particular, are exceptions to this rule.  Although the core muscles do play a role with respect to movement, of equal importance is their contribution to support, stability, and posture. Consider that the pelvic floor muscles, particularly the superficial PFM, have an essential function in the support, stability and “posture” of the penis.  They should be considered the hidden “jewels” of the pelvis.

Who Knew? If you want your penis to have “outstanding” posture and stability, you want to make sure that your PFM are kept fit and well-conditioned.

The PFM have three main functions that can be summarized by three S’s: support, sphincter, and sex. Support refers to their important role in securing our pelvic organs—the urinary, genital and intestinal tracts—in proper anatomical position. Sphincter function allows us to interrupt our urinary stream and pucker the anus and contributes in a major way to urinary and bowel control.  These vital responsibilities are generally taken for granted until something goes awry. With regard to sexual function, the PFM are active during erection and ejaculation.  They cause a surge of penile blood flow that helps maintain a rigid penile erection throughout sexual activity and at the time of orgasm, contract rhythmically, enabling ejaculation by propelling semen through the urethra.

The PFM can become atrophied, flabby and poorly functional with aging, weight gain, a sedentary lifestyle, saddle sports and other forms of injury and trauma, chronic straining, and surgery.  Sexual inactivity can lead to their loss of tone, texture, and function.  However, PFM integrity and optimum functioning can be maintained into our golden years with attention to a healthy lifestyle, an active sex life, and PFM training, particularly when such exercises are performed against progressive resistance.  The goal of such a regimen is the attainment of broader, thicker and firmer PFM and maintenance and/or restoration of function.

The PFM may physically be the bottom of the barrel of our core, but functionally they are furthermost from the bottom of the barrel.  For those who are already functioning well, an intensive PFM training program—as with any good fitness regimen—can impart better performance, increased strength (rigidity), improved endurance (ejaculatory control), and decreased recovery time (the amount of time it takes to achieve another erection).  Keeping the PFM supple and healthy can help prevent the typical decline in function that accompanies the aging process. On so many domains, diligently practiced PFM exercises will allow one to reap tangible rewards, as they are the very essence of functional fitness—training one’s body to handle real-life situations and overcome life’s daily obstacles.

Andrew Siegel, M.D.

Author of: Male Pelvic Fitness: Optimizing Sexual and Urinary Health; in press and available in e-book and paperback formats in April 2014.

www.MalePelvicFitness.com

Author of Promiscuous Eating: Understanding and Ending Our Self-Destructive Relationship with Food: www.promiscuouseating.com

Available on Amazon in Kindle edition

Author of Finding Your Own Fountain of Youth: The Essential Guide For Maximizing Health, Wellness, Fitness & Longevity  (free electronic download) www.findyourfountainofyouth.com 

Amazon page: amazon.com/author/andrewsiegel

For more info on Dr. Siegel: http://www.about.me/asiegel913