Posts Tagged ‘cancer’

What The Heck is Urology?

August 24, 2013

Andrew Siegel, MD  Blog #116

“Urology” (uro—urinary tract and logos—study of) is a medical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in females and of the genitourinary tract in males. The organs under the “domain” of urology include the adrenal glands, kidneys, the ureters (tubes connecting the kidneys to the urinary bladder), the urinary bladder and the urethra (the channel that conducts urine from the bladder to the outside).  The male reproductive organs include the testes (i.e., testicles), epididymis (structures above and behind the testicle where sperm mature and are stored), vas deferens (sperm duct), seminal vesicles (the structure that produces the bulk of semen), prostate gland and, of course, the scrotum and penis.  The reproductive and urinary tracts are closely connected, and disorders of one oftentimes affect the other…thus urologists are referred to as  “genitourinary” specialists. Urology involves both medical and surgical strategies to approach a variety of conditions.

Urology has always been on the cutting edge of surgical advancements (no pun intended) and urologists employ minimally invasive technologies including fiber-optic scopes to be able to view the entire inside aspect of the urinary tract, as well as ultrasound, lasers, laparoscopy and robotics.  There is a great deal of overlap in what urologists do with other medical and surgical disciplines, including nephrology (doctors who specialize in medical diseases of the kidney); oncology (cancer specialists); radiation oncologists (radiation cancer specialists); radiology (imaging); gynecology (female specialists); and endocrinology (hormone specialists).

Urologists are the male counterparts to gynecologists and the go-to physicians when it comes to expertise in male pelvic health.  Urologists, in addition to being physicians, are also surgeons who care for serious and potentially life-threatening illnesses, particularly cancers of the genital and urinary tracts.  In terms of new cancer cases per year in American men, prostate cancer is number one accounting for almost 30% of cases; bladder cancer is number four accounting for 6% of cases; and cancer of the kidney and renal pelvis (the inner part of the kidney that collects the urine) are number six accounting for 5% of cases.  Urologists are also the specialists who treat testicular cancer.  Urologists also treat women with kidney and bladder cancer, although the prevalence of these cancers is much less so than in males. 

Very common reasons for a referral to a urologist are the following: blood in the urine, whether it is visible or picked up on a urinalysis done as part of an annual physical; an elevated PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) or an accelerated increase of PSA over time; prostate enlargement; irregularities of the prostate on examination; urinary difficulties ranging the gamut from urinary incontinence to the inability to urinate (urinary retention).

Urologists manage a variety of non-cancer issues. Kidney stones, which can be extraordinarily painful, keep us very busy, especially in the hot summer months when dehydration (a major risk factor) is more prevalent. Infections are a large part of our practice and can involve the bladder, kidneys, prostate, or the testicles and epididymis.  Urinary infections is one problem that is much more prevalent in women than in men.  Sexual dysfunction is a very prevalent condition that occupies much of the time of the urologist—under this category are problems of erectile dysfunction, problems of ejaculation, and testosterone issues. Urologists treat not only male infertility, but create male infertility when it is desired by performing voluntary male sterilization (vasectomy).   Urologists are responsible for caring for scrotal issues including testicular pain and swelling.   Many referrals are made to urologists for blood in the semen.

Training to become a urologist involves attending 4 years of medical school after college and 1–2 years of general surgery training followed by 4 years of urology residency. Thereafter, many urologists like myself pursue additional sub-specialty training in the form of a fellowship that can last anywhere from 1–3 years.  Urology board certification can be achieved if one graduates from an accredited residency and passes a written exam and an oral exam and has an appropriate log of cases that are reviewed by the board committee.  One must thereafter maintain board certification by participating in continuing medical education and passing a recertification exam every ten years.  Becoming board certified is the equivalent of a lawyer passing the bar exam.

In addition to obtaining board certification in general urology, there are 2 sub-specialties within the scope of urology in which sub-specialty board certification can be obtained—pediatric urology, which is the practice of urology limited to children and female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery (FPMRS), which involves female urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and other female uro-gynecological issues.  The FPMRS boards were offered for the very first time in June 2013, and I am pleased to announce that I am now board certified in both general urology and FPMRS.  There are approximately 100 or so urologists in the entire country who are board certified in the urology subspecialty of FPMRS.

In terms of the demographics of urology, although urology is largely a male specialty, women have been entering the urological workforce with increasing frequency.  This is because female students now comprise approximately 50% of United States medical school population. There are 10,000 practicing urologists in the USA, of which about 500 are women. Urologists have a median age of 53, so we are not a particularly young specialty. The aging population will demand more urological health services and the Affordable Care Act will result in the dramatic expansion of the number of American citizens with health insurance. These factors combined with the aging of the urological workforce and the contraction due to retirement, all in the face of growing demands, does not augur well for a balance of supply and demand in the forthcoming years.  Hopefully there will be enough of us to provide urological care to those in the population that need it.

Andrew Siegel, M.D.

Author of Promiscuous Eating: Understanding and Ending Our Self-Destructive Relationship with Food:

Available on Amazon in Kindle edition

Author of: Male Pelvic Fitness: Optimizing Sexual and Urinary Health, in press and available in e-book and paperback formats in the Autumn 2013.

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I Was a Cancer Caregiver

March 16, 2013

Blog #98

The following essay was written by Cameron Von St James, who sent me this inspirational story with a very happy ending.  I was delighted to honor his request to post his essay on my weekly blog.

My wife Heather and I will always remember November 21, 2005. On that day, she was diagnosed with mesothelioma, and I became her caregiver. Just three months before, we had rejoiced over the birth of Lily, our only child.  We had been blissfully enjoying the thrills of new parenthood, but all of that came to a halt when we heard the terrible news. Heather’s cancer diagnosis pulled the rug out from under us, and we began down a long and difficult road to save her life. The next few months would be utter chaos for our family.

As we began our new lifestyle of treatments and caregiving, it was hard to stay positive. Heather couldn’t work, and I needed to clear my days to take care of her. We went from two full-time jobs to one part-time job. The comfortable routine we had was replaced by a hectic schedule of doctors, traveling and caring for Lily on my own. I kept thinking that we would lose everything as we battled this disease. I was worried that Heather could die and that Lily would lose her mother at the end of the fight. I admit to breaking down in tears a few times, but Heather never knew. She didn’t have the energy to fret over me. She had her own battle to wage. I needed to stay strong for her.

Luckily, our friends, family and even total strangers helped Heather and me deal with our situation. We were bombarded with kind words and even much needed financial help to get us through the tough times. There’s no way to adequately show our appreciation to those who gave us support. If I had to give one piece of advice to other caregivers out there, it would be to accept every offer of help that comes your way.  I had to learn that pride is something you can’t afford as a caregiver.  Each offer of help that I accepted was a weight off my shoulders, and reminded me that I was not alone in caring for my wife.

Heather endured surgery, radiation and chemotherapy in the attempt to destroy her cancer over the following months. Despite the odds against her, she was able to do just that. It’s now been seven years since her mesothelioma diagnosis, and she remains cancer free to this day. We learned that when you fight such a tough foe, you need to make the most of every resource at your disposal. You’ll have good days and bad days, but you need to stay focused and confident.  The most important thing is to never give up hope.

Being a cancer caregiver taught me how to better manage my time and how to deal with stress. Two years after her diagnosis, I decided to return to school.  Being a caregiver had given me the courage I needed to pursue that dream of mine. Five years after our ordeal, I graduated at the top of my class, even being granted the opportunity to speak at my graduation. In my speech, I told my fellow graduates all that I had learned as my wife’s caregiver.  I said that within each of us is the strength to accomplish incredible, even impossible things, as long as we never give up hope and always keep fighting for the ones we love.

Cameron Von St James

For more info on mesothelioma:

Andrew Siegel, M.D.

Author of Promiscuous Eating: Understanding and Ending Our Self-Destructive Relationship with Food:

Available on Amazon in paperback or Kindle edition

Blog subscription: A new blog is posted every week.   On the lower right margin you can enter your email address to subscribe to the blog and receive notifications of new posts in your inbox.  Please avail yourself of these educational materials and share them with your friends and family.